Coordinates (Jiangsu People's Government): unknown (Yecheng, 495 BCE. Daher hat Nanjing im Chinesischen auch die Bezeichnung „Antikes Kapitol der sechs Dynastien“ (六朝古都, Liù Cháo Gǔdū) bzw. During the period of North–South division, Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries. Many of the city's local favorite dishes are based on ducks, including Nanjing salted duck, duck blood and vermicelli soup, and duck oil pancake. Nov 22, 2019 - Explore Sun Li-jen's board "Nanking Massacre" on Pinterest. Several place names in Nanjing remains witnessed them, such as Wangjinshi (网巾市, the market sells wangjin), Guyilang (估衣廊, the corridor for garments bargain), Youfangqiao (油坊桥, the bridge near an oil mill). In Nanjing dialect there is no difference between Nanjing and Nanjin or between Nanking and Nankin. , A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived (in various degrees of preservation) in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District. Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009..  At present, the Nanjing Metro system has a grand total of 377 km (234 mi) of route and 173 stations across 10 lines. Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls round the east side of the city, while the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouches in the west of the city, hence the name “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching”. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita (current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), an 11 percent increase from 2012. The city, also spelled Nanjing or Nan-ching, was founded in the 8 th century BC. At first, the landless peasants benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain.  In 1421, the Yongle Emperor relocated the capital to Beijing. Through readings of historical account by actors and the testimony of survivors, the events of the Nanjing Massacre are recounted.  Big civilian-run enterprise include Suning Commerce, Yurun, Sanpower, Fuzhong, Hiteker, 5stars, Jinpu, Tiandi, CTTQ Pharmaceutical, Nanjing Iron and Steel Company and Simcere Pharmaceutical. Mao Zedong as Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspectives. The Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games featured all 28 sports on the Olympic program and were held from 16 to 28 August. STUDIES ON THE POPULATION OF CHINA, 1368–1953. It suffered severe atrocities in both conflicts, such as the Nanjing massacre.  On November 12, 1999, the station was burnt in a serious fire. , Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949, and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports. It was well populated and had a large craft industry..  The city itself was also severely damaged during the massacre.  Nanjing is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing as the leading port in the region. The airport is connected by a 29-kilometer (18 mi) highway directly to the city center, and is also linked to various intercity highways, making it accessible to the passengers from the surrounding cities. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. (Buch (gebunden)) - portofrei bei eBook.de In East China, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai, and the second largest is Nanjing. — About the former opulent capital Jinling (present-day Nanjing) in the poem Climbing Phoenix Terrace at Jinling by Li Bai of the Tang dynasty, The period of division ended when the Sui dynasty reunified China and almost destroyed the entire city, turning it into a small town. Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens.  It serves as rail junction for the Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xi'an (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei–Nanjing Railway. Nanjing also has professional opera troupes for the Yang, Yue (shaoxing), Xi and Jing (Chinese opera varieties) as well as Suzhou pingtan, spoken theater and puppet theater.  The commoners and officials in Beijing and Nanjing were waiting to support whichever side won. Southeast University is also among the most famous universities in China and is considered to be one of the best universities for Architecture and Engineering in China. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030. Sun's body was brought and placed in a grand mausoleum to cement Chiang's legitimacy. "梁都之时，城中二十八万户，西至石头，东至倪塘，南至石子冈，北过蒋山，东西南北各四十里。", In the 3rd year of Jianyan (1129), Jiankang became Temporary Capital (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDennerline2002 (, Ho Ping-ti. Nanjing Massacre, conventional Nanking Massacre, also called Rape of Nanjing, (December 1937–January 1938), mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. , Nanjing's planned 20,000 seat Youth Olympic Sports Park Gymnasium will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.. A lot of government buildings, residential houses, and modern public infrastructures were built. The area around Nanjing is called Xiajiang (下江, Downstream River) region, with Jianghuai dominant in the northern part and Jiangzhe dominant in the southern part. Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China.  Koxinga's Ming loyalists fought against a majority Han Chinese Bannermen Qing army when attacking Nanjing. 2Open Coastal Cities.  It was the site of a Qing Army garrison. ..." – from "Three giants tighten their grip", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCrespigny2004 (, 《至大金陵新志》："金城在城东二十五里，吴筑，今上元县金陵乡地名金城戍即其地。" 《至正金陵新志》："上元縣金陵鄉，舊名金城戍。晉太元八年，謝安勞師于金城，即此。或稱琅邪城。咸康初，桓溫為琅邪內史，鎮金城。", 金陵在春秋時本吳地，未有城邑。惟石頭城東有冶城。傳雲，夫差冶鑄於此。即今朝天宮地。. When was Nanjing founded? From health perspective, eating radish can help to offset the stodgy food that people take during the Spring Festival". Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. Koxinga's attack on Qing held Nanjing which would interrupt the supply route of the Grand Canal leading to possible starvation in Beijing caused such fear that the Manchus (Tartares) considered returning to Manchuria (Tartary) and abandoning China according to a 1671 account by a French missionary.  The Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall was built in 1985 to commemorate this event. Lexington books.  His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty. [d] Nanjing is sometimes known as Jinling or Ginling (金陵, "Gold Hill") of the eponymous Ginling College; the old name has been used since the Warring States period in the Zhou dynasty. Going in the downstream direction, the Yangtze crossings in Nanjing are: Dashengguan Bridge, Line 10 Metro Tunnel, Third Bridge, Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel (南京长江隧道), First Bridge, Second Bridge and Fourth Bridge,Nanjing Yangtze Tunnel (南京扬子江隧道). Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge built. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Private universities and colleges, such as Communication University of China, Nanjing and Hopkins-Nanjing Center are also located in the city. Since becoming a southern capital, the city has been called Nanking (Nanjing, The areas covered by such geographical names as Jiangnan, Dongnan and Xiajiang are not precisely defined. Because it was designated as the national capital, many structures were built around that time. Nanjing is the transport hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River area. (南京為中國古都，在北京之前，而其位置乃在一美善之地區。其地有高山，有深水，有平原，此三種天工，鐘毓一處，在世界中之大都市誠難覓如此佳境也。而又恰居長江下游兩岸最豐富區域之中心...), To be more exact, surrounded by the Yangtze River and mountains, the urban area of the city enjoys its scenic natural environment. Its reserves of strontium rank first in East Asia and the South East Asia region. aDirect-administered Municipalities. Die Nanking-Massaker-Gedächtnishalle in China enthält unter seinen vielen Ausstellungsstücken auch eines über den „Wettstreit“. Other, more student-oriented places are to be found near to Nanjing University and Nanjing Normal University.  It is among the longest surviving city walls in China. Other events include Nanjing Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival, Jiangxin Zhou Fruit Festival and Linggu Temple Sweet Osmanthus Festival. The Nanjing Massacre or the Rape of Nanjing (alternately written as the Nanking Massacre or the Rape of Nanking) was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Imperial Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War . In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the "Nanjing Regime" or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei was established in Nanjing as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing. In 1937, the Empire of Japan started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theater of World War II).  In 1441, Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the word "provisional" (行在) on the Beijing Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing purposes remained. Die Schlacht von Nanking war eine Schlacht des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Kriegs. In 1927, the Kuomintang (KMT; Nationalist Party) under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek again established Nanjing as the capital of the Republic of China, and this became internationally recognized once KMT forces took Beijing in 1928. Besides the city wall, other Ming-era structures in the city included the famous Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum and Porcelain Tower, although the latter was destroyed by the Taipings in the 19th century either to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city or from superstitious fear of its geomantic properties. Shufen Liu, "Jiankang and the Commercial Empire of the Southern Dynasties", in Pearce, Spiro, Ebrey eds. Yuan demanded the capital be Beijing (closer to his power base). The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people.  It had been visited by the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of times on their tours of the southern provinces. 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